The study area is located in North Eastern European Russia with fieldwork in collaboration with Komi Science Centre. Sites at Kharinei and Lelt-tl have been selected as they are known to have experienced significant shifts in plant functional types (PFTs). The location is particularly important as during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the ice sheet was about 350km to the northeast of the Kharinei site. The region is composed of quaternary deposits with tundra shrub and dwarf shrub vegetation. The contemporary arctic spruce tree line is approximately 100km to the south.